Fron Ray Dalio’s Principles: Life and Work, p. 195-198:
- Closed-minded people don’t want their ideas challenged. Open-minded people are more curious about why there is disagreement.
- Closed-minded people are more likely to make statements than ask questions. Open-minded people genuinely believe they could be wrong.
- Closed-minded people focus much more on being understood than on understanding others. Open-minded people always feel compelled to see things through other’s eyes.
- Closed-minded people say things like “I could be wrong… but here’s my opinion”. Open-minded people know when to make statements and when to ask questions.
- Closed-minded people block others from speaking. Open-minded people are always more interested in listening than speaking; they encourage others to voice their views.
- Closed-minded people have trouble holding two thoughts simultaneously in their minds. Open-minded people can take in the thoughts of others without losing their ability to think well –they can hold two or more conflicting concepts in their minds and go back and forth between them to assess their relative merits.
- Closed-minded people lack a deep sense of humility. Open-minded people approach everything with a deep-seated fear that they may be wrong.