Book Publishing, ebooks, and Independent Authors

Book Publishing is a topic I’ve been following for sometime now. Books always have had enormous influence on people and in culture. One of the big revolutions in history was Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press around 1439. Gutenberg’s movable type press introduced an era of mass communication in Europe that permanently altered the structure of society1.

While e-books are not an invention of Amazon, their massive consumption was widely popularized with the introduction of Amazon’s Kindle reading device in November 2007. Even if print books won’t disappear anytime soon —as of 2014 the number of global print books sold still outsold e-books2— the influence of ebooks cannot be ignored. Consider that since May 2011 Amazon, the biggest bookstore on Earth, sells more ebooks than print books3.

Ebooks are disruptive. And business-wise, they have undeniable benefits over their printed cousins. Unlike print media, ebooks can be available for sale essentially forever. Authors don’t need to beg their publisher for a reprint. Electronic publishing dilutes publishing costs, making the marginal cost to sell one more ebook effectively zero. Independent writers can pursue the long-tail strategy and have a portfolio of books that drip income every day.

Digital publishing makes it also possible to publish ebooks only interesting to a small niche of people. This was impossible before in the minds of big publishing houses because they saw no business in such small volume editions. And more important, as Clay Shirky writes, ebooks make the wealth of culture of humanity available to anybody with a reading device:

The traditional industry belief — if you don’t live in a big city and have a lot of money, you deserve second-class access to books — is being challenged by a company [Amazon] trying to say “If you have ten bucks, there’s not a book in the world you can’t read.”

Insights about the Publishing Industry

Industry Consolidation

During the last decade, the publishing industry has gone through an important consolidation process. Big publishing houses bought small imprints and publishers, or merged among themselves to form bigger companies. As of today, the industry is dominated by five companies, often referred to as the Big Five. In no particular order, they are:

  • Penguin Random House, owned 51% by Bertelsmann and 49% by Pearson. Bertelsmann is a giant media company with revenues around $20 billion. Penguin itself has revenues of $3.9 billion, around 10,000 employees, 250 imprints, and publishes 25% of the world’s English-language books.
  • Hachette, owned by Lagardère Publishing – the biggest publisher in France and the second biggest in the UK. It is the world’s second largest trade publisher overall. Lagardère Publishing is itself part of Lagardère Group, a giant worldwide media company – magazines, radio, television, online, digital, and books – with annual revenue of approximately $10bn dollars. (cfr David Gaughran, Amazon v Hachette: Don’t Believe The Spin.)
  • HarperCollins, a subsidiary of NewsCorp.
  • Macmillan, corporate parent of the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, which has 50% ownership of Die Zeit.
  • Simon & Schuster, property of CBS Corp., owner of the most watched network in the US with revenues over $14bn.

Seth Godin writes that the role of the publishing houses is to find good authors and books. They are the gatekeepers of print media, the ones who decide which selected authors will be published. While this closes the doors to lots of potentially good and even great authors, they also make sure that what gets published meets a minimum level of quality.

The business of publishing houses is not unlike the Venture Capital (VC) industry. With the exception of best-selling authors, nobody can predict if a new book will be a success or a flop. But publishing houses don’t need all their titles to be bestsellers. They only need one bestseller in ten, and maybe three out of ten regular sellers. The rest, the other six, they can afford to be complete flops. Like the VC business, lots of potentially good books or authors get discarded because there is not enough time to read them all. (Who hasn’t heard the story of the number of reject slips some later-famous authors got from publishers before they were “discovered”?)

Publishing houses put their part in the making of a great book —print or electronic— by making sure that it goes through certain stages. For example, they take care of providing essential services for authors like editors, copyediting, book design, in some cases book promotion, etc. Even with a great manuscript, these steps are essential for having a professional quality book at the end of the process.

While print books —specially hardcovers— sell at higher prices than e-books and have higher margins, selling physical books to bookstores and retailers requires demand planning, some heavy logistics, stock provisions, rebates… Big companies are best suited for these tasks than independent writers, because they can obtain important savings thanks to economies of scale.

Pricing models for selling books and price fixing

Even if the big publishers sell some books directly to customers through their websites, their most important sales come through traditional channels like bookstores and retail stores. There are two models for pricing books and ebooks: the wholesale model, and the agency model.

Under the wholesale model, publishers set the list price of books and sell them to retailers at a substantial discount. The retailer then sell the books to customers at the price they choose, keeping the profit or assuming the losses. (For example, as a way to bring in customers, Amazon often sold popular books at heavy discounts.)

Under the agency model, publishers set the book’s final price. Retailers sell the book to customers at that price, and receive a commission on sales. The agency model doesn’t allow for discounting. Retailers become “agents” for the publishers, hence the name of the model.

The wholesale model is the pricing model used for selling print books. Some years ago, electronic books were sold under this model too.

In 2010, Apple negotiated a deal with the Big Five publishing houses to make their ebooks available on Apple iBookstore. One of Apple’s concerns was that Amazon’s aggressive pricing strategy was eroding the market’s margins on ebooks. According to Apple, ebooks should cost at least $12. (Amazon was selling them at $9.99 or less.)

Clay Shirky, in his article Publishing and Reading, explains why publishers were worried about Amazon too:

Back in 2007, when publishers began selling large numbers of books in digital format, they used digital rights management (DRM) to lock their books to a particular piece of hardware, Amazon’s new Kindle. DRM is designed to transfer pricing power from content owners to hardware vendors. The publishers clearly assumed they could hand Amazon consolidated control without ever having to conspire with one another, and that Amazon would reward them by passing cost-savings back as inflated profits. When Amazon instead decided to side with the customer, passing the savings on as reduced price, they panicked, and started looking around for an alternative conspirator.

Under the wholesale model, publishers had no say over Amazon’s final pricing. After closing deals with Apple, these publishers switched simultaneously from the wholesale model to the agency model. Because all of the big houses changed pricing model simultaneously, retailers —even Amazon— had no option but to accept the publishing houses’s conditions.

Some time later, in April 2012, the Department of Justice (DOJ) sued Apple and the Big Five publishing houses and accused them of conspiring to set e-book prices4. After reaching a settlement with the DOJ, the Big Five publishers have continued to sell ebooks under the agency model. However, they are required to renegotiate deals with Amazon and other retailers independently.

Self-published authors are outearning all authors published by the Big Five

There are more and better tools available today for self-publishing than a couple of years before. Market numbers confirm that authors are using these tools for good.

According to Author Earnings’s January 2015 Author Earnings Report, 33% of all paid ebook unit sales on Amazon.com are indie self-published ebooks. In mid-2014, indie-published authors as a cohort began taking 40% of all ebook author earnings generated on Amazon.com, while authors published by all of the Big Five publishers combined slipped into second place at 35%. (Amazon controls 67% of the US ebook market.) The Write Life reports that 40% of all dollars earned by authors from e-books on Amazon.com are from sales of independently published e-books.

Author Earning’s comments:

Only seven months ago, the idea that indie self-published authors and their ebooks were outearning all authors published by the Big Five publishers combined was jaw-dropping heresy. Today, it’s boring —a widely-acknowledged fact among knowledgeable authors, if not industry pundits. Many authors who publish both ways point out their earnings disparity in favor of their self-published titles, and so this data is no longer surprising.

This doesn’t mean that an author’s life has become suddenly easier. The effect of more publishing options, better tools, lower costs, and no gatekeepers, is that the barrier to new incumbents to this market is lower that it has ever been. It has become a more crowded space than ever for the indie author. Like Tim O’Reilly said years ago, obscurity is a far greater threat to authors and creative artists than piracy5.

Aside from obscurity, there are other threats. Books —specially ebooks— now compete for attention against mobile games, television, movies, social media like Facebook or Twitter. Because nowadays it’s increasingly difficult to engage in activities that require long attention spans, a large number of people favor short format reading. Think about it. When was the last time you could spend a quiet, interruption-free hour or two reading a novel from your favorite author?

Going the indie-road doesn’t exonerate authors for doing the work that traditionally publishers took care of. Having great content is essential. But for a good book to become a great book you still need an editor, good cover design, beta readers, etc. These steps are important, and they are not difficult to fulfill. But it is surprising of how many talented people neglect them.

Book promotion is also crucial if authors plan to sell their work. Writing about non-fiction books, Seth Godin says that “publishing a book is really nothing but a socially acceptable opportunity to promote yourself and your ideas far and wide and often.6“. But books require the user to read them for the idea to spread. He suggests you should try other things first:

Build an asset. Large numbers of influential people who read your blog or read your emails or watch your TV show or love your restaurant or or or…
Then, put your idea into a format where it will spread fast. That could be an ebook (a free one) or a pamphlet (a cheap one—the Joy of Jello sold millions and millions of copies at a dollar or less).
Then, if your idea catches on, you can sell the souvenir edition. The book. The thing people keep on their shelf or lend out or get from the library. Books are wonderful (I own too many!) but they’re not necessarily the best vessel for spreading your idea.

The Last Gatekeeper

Ebooks are changing the publishing industry. The power of ebooks is that they have opened the doors for independent authors. Anyone can who can write a book can now publish her or his work without relying on an established publishing house and without fear of rejection slips.

Aspiring independent writers should consider ebooks as their first option. With print books, even if the costs of physical publishing going down, you still have to convince the gatekeepers to let you in. With ebooks, the are essentially no gatekeepers.

PS: If you are interested in writing fiction and going the indie-road, I can recommend David Gaughran’s Let’s Get Digital: How to Self-Publish, and Why You Should. Gaughran explains the tools needed for going from manuscript to ebook, discusses several publishing options, and includes several case-studies.


Photo Credits: Dariusz Sas, George Tsartsianidis/123RF Stock Photo

Tags: book publishing, business models, disruption

Services for sharing large files (MEGA is still not a Dropbox killer)

Two years ago I wrote an article comparing Mega to Dropbox, two file sharing services. The point of the article was that Mega was not a Dropbox killer. Mega had just launched, and maybe because all the hype around Mega’s owner, Kim Schmitz, many sites were proclaiming the end of Dropbox. Mega’s main offer was generous storage space and very strong file encryption. Back then, it didn’t offer native file synchronization (which now does).

Bauke Roesink has published a very complete roundup of file sharing services titled Transfer Big Files. He asked 44 professionals about their favorite service for sending large files. The article is worth reading. It offers not just the poll’s results but the actual insights. (You can read mine, also published in his article, following this link.)

Based on Roesink’s poll, the most used service for sharing large files is Dropbox (44% votes), followed by Google Drive (13%) and OneDrive(6%). While Mega now offers native file syncing and probably better file encryption than the other services, less than 3% said they used Mega, and none as their first option.

A strong argument for using Dropbox was simplicity. If you want to share a file in your Dropbox folder, just right-click the file to get a link that you can send by mail or using your favorite messaging app.

With Mega, there is no easy right-click action to share your data. You’ll need to log into Mega’s web page. What’s more, MEGA’s cryptographic security model depends on the confidentiality of the keys needed to decrypt the files. But to share a file with someone else, you need to share this confidential key. As Mega’s site warns you, by sharing a file you could be compromising the security of your Mega folder.

I still think that Dropbox and Mega are trying to solve different problems. If you need very strong encryption, Mega is a solid choice. You will be able to sync your files to your machines, but beware of the security implications of trying to share your files with third parties. On the other hand, if you want reliable and simple file sharing with a reasonable level of security, then Dropbox is the service of choice.


Photo Copyright: 3dfoto / 123RF Stock Photo

Tags: file sharing

Silent data and evaluating employees’s performance

Nassim N. Taleb, author of The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable Fragility, has this concept of silent evidence. That is, we tend to make decisions mistakenly taking a limited subset of the information as the whole dataset.

It is not that we don’t acknowledge the existence of silent data. We do. The thing is that, in practice, we unconsciously ignore it again and again.

Silent evidence is what events use to conceal their own randomness, particularly the Black Swan type of randomness. (Nassim N. Taleb, The Black Swan)

Something similar can be said about evaluating people’s performance in an organization. Managers often have to consider if their reports are ready to be promoted. Depending of the company, a more or less formal processes for this may exist. But in the end, it is the manager’s responsibility to judge if the employee is ready to be promoted or not.

If you are a manager, do you pause to think if there is silent data about your candidate that you are not considering? Is her “success” a consequence of chance? In the light of someone consistently exceeding her sales goals, other considerations may not seem important. How did she achieve her goals? How were the goals set?

Perfect information is rarely available.

Developing the habit of looking for silent data is a really important asset.

Tags: silent evidence

Link: The Procrastinator’s Guide to Progress, by Shawn Blanc

Procrastination is one of those words that is difficult to translate to other languages. The English definition for the verb to procrastinate is to delay or postpone action; put off doing something. It is the verb of the defeated1.

When I come to the keyboard to begin writing, a million potential distractions stand at my doorstep. There are many days when I’d rather give in to one of the distractions instead of doing my writing. But I choose not to. I write when I’m tired. I write when I’m uninspired. I write when the weather outside is beautiful. I write when I’m not even sure what to write about.

A few weeks ago, Shawn Blanc started an email newsletter about creativity, focus, and risk called The Fight Spot. Shawn has put all the procrastination-centric content published in his newsletter in a document called The Procrastinator’s Guide to Progress. You can get it for free by subscribing to The Fight Spot newsletter.

(…) there are many ways to beat procrastination. But if I had to boil it all down to just one piece of advice — the first step toward beating procrastination in terms of doing something else instead of making and creating — I would say this:
  Show up every day.
  As in, carve out 30–60 minutes in your day. Every day. Make an appointment with yourself for when you’re going to create. Be it writing, playing music, painting, drawing, photography, or whatever it is you’re trying to create for the world.
  Make that appointment and keep it. And when you’re there, put your phone on Do Not Disturb mode. Get earplugs or headphones. Go somewhere you won’t be distracted. Whatever it takes so you can spend the whole of your time making.

Tags: productivity, procrastination, habits, gtd

Only Enemies and True Leaders Speak the Truth

Two excuses can keep you from giving clear, unambiguous feedback: the fear of falling out of favor of your boss, and the desire to be liked by your peers or reports.

There is a great example of the desire to be liked in the conversation between Steve Jobs and Jonathan Ive1, quoted by Ian Parker in his excellent article for The New Yorker titled The Shape of Things to Come:

Jobs’s taste for merciless criticism was notorious; Ive recalled that, years ago, after seeing colleagues crushed, he protested. Jobs replied, “Why would you be vague?,” arguing that ambiguity was a form of selfishness: “You don’t care about how they feel! You’re being vain, you want them to like you.” Ive was furious, but came to agree. “It’s really demeaning to think that, in this deep desire to be liked, you’ve compromised giving clear, unambiguous feedback,” he said.

Author Stephen King puts it bluntly: only enemies speak the truth2. Maybe we should said instead: only enemies and true leaders speak the truth. When was the last time you gave honest feedback?


  1. Jonathan Ive is the genius behind Apple’s beautiful and revolutionary designed products, ranging from the iPod to Apple Watch. He was very close to Steve Jobs and his personal friend. According to Parker, Ive is also one of the two most powerful people in the world’s most valuable company.  

  2. cfr http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/124167-only-enemies-speak-the-truth-friends-and-lovers-lie-endlessly

Tags: feedback, leadership

It’s easy, it’s fun, and it’s guaranteed to work

It’s easy, it’s fun, and it’s guaranteed to work. Of course you can do it. (All of that is true except for the part about easy, fun and guaranteed.)

From Seth Godin’s new book What to Do When It’s Your Turn (and it’s always your turn).

Link: Nobody will perceive you as a CEO until you’ve been one

Good article by Mark Suster on personal branding. Personal branding is one of those areas you cannot be passive about. (Mark Suster is a 2x entrepreneur turned VC.)

To this day I still tell people the only way to be a CEO is to be a CEO. Nobody will perceive you as a CEO until you’ve been one.

First, live the brand. Then define the brand. Then communicate it carefully but often. (…) If you don’t define your brand, somebody else will.

Tags: personal branding

Care enough to give constructive feedback

As Seth Godin writes, maybe you don’t care enough to give constructive feedback. “We might be rejected, or scolded, or made to feel dumb. And of course there’s the risk that we’ll get our hopes up that something will improve, only to see it revert to the status quo.”

However, if you don’t overcome your fear, don’t expect others to respect you or follow your lead.

Tags: feedback, leadership

80/20 Sales and Marketing, by Perry Marshall (Book Review)

Perry Marshall’s book is all about Pareto’s Principle and Power Curves. Although the author tries to reason the logic under the principle, the value of this book is in the online marketing and sales tactics it offers.

The book covers topics like market discovery, getting traffic, conversion and selling. “To build a sales funnel, you begin with the end in mind.” Since selling starts with traffic, advanced marketers don’t begin with the invention (i.e., the final transaction). “They begin by asking: ‘what would these people want to buy?’ Then they create it or find it.”

Before trying to convince anybody of anything, however, you must disqualify people who don’t fit. Marshall explains what he calls the 5 Power Disqualifiers. They define who of the traffic you are going to buy:

Do they have money? (…) Do they have a bleeding neck? (A dire sense of urgency, an immediate problem that demands to be solved. Right. Now.) (…) Do they buy into you unique selling proposition? (…) Do they have the ability to say YES? (…) Does what you sell fit in with their overall plans?

The three steps to selling anything, according to Marshall, is what he calls the Power Triangle:

  • Get Traffic. Who would buy this?
  • Conversion. What can we say to persuade them to buy?
  • Economics. Can you reach them affordably? Can they give you money?

The Power Triangle can be applied to each corner of the Power Triangle itself, again and again. For example, to get traffic, you should think about traffic in terms of traffic, conversion, and economics. “There is a Power Triangle inside each element of the Triangle.”1

Marshall’s approach finding customer needs and effective marketing actions is to test, test, and test. Test fast. Fail fast. Move on.

“You send a calculated signal that most ignore, but a few respond to. (…) Before you bet your precious time or money on any sales or business project, you need to rack the shotgun.”

The best place to start testing, Marshall argues, is Google Adwords. Test ads. Test landing pages. Test sign-up pages. Test everything. Then, scale up.

Marshall offers some insights about the Bull’s-Eye Social Media Technique, a method developed by Glenn Livingston to narrow your field of competitors and focus on the exact “corner of the internet”.

Finally, Pareto’s principle should be applied to analyzing your client portfolio. Which 20 percent of your clients make the 80 percent of your sales. Marshall goes deeper and proposes three variables that must be considered in the analysis in addition to gross sales: Recency (when was the last time this customer bought something), Frequency (how often does the customer buys from us), and Money (how much does he buy). He then uses this additional variables to build a scoring system and applies Pareto’s Principle to the results.

Although I didn’t like Marshall’s writing style and I found the hype around the 80/20 Principle somewhat excessive, this is a useful book. It will get you up to speed on modern marketing techniques, specially regarding to online sales and advertising.

Find 80/20 Sales and Marketing in Amazon.


  1. What Marshall calls Power Triangle is a Sierpinski Triangle, a fractal with the overall shape of an equilateral triangle, subdivided recursively into smaller equilateral triangles. 

Tags: marketing, sales, Pareto's principle, focus, 80/20

Link: There’s no such thing as a status quo

Matt Mullenweg, founder of Automattic (the company behind the WordPress publishing platform, used by 22% of the web), shares Automattic’s creed:

I will never stop learning. I won’t just work on things that are assigned to me. I know there’s no such thing as a status quo. I will build our business sustainably through passionate and loyal customers. I will never pass up an opportunity to help out a colleague, and I’ll remember the days before I knew everything. I am more motivated by impact than money, and I know that Open Source is one of the most powerful ideas of our generation. I will communicate as much as possible, because it’s the oxygen of a distributed company. I am in a marathon, not a sprint, and no matter how far away the goal is, the only way to get there is by putting one foot in front of another every day. Given time, there is no problem that’s insurmountable.

Tags: leadership

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